Paediatrics deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents, and the age limit usually ranges from birth up to 18 years of age. A medical specialist who practices in this area is known as a paediatrician who is specialized in Child Healthcare. The word paediatrics mean "healer of children"; they derive from two Greek words. Paediatricians work both in hospitals, particularly those working in its specialized subfields such as neonatology, and as primary care physicians who specialize in children. In medical contexts, new-born refers to an infant in the first 28 days after birth; the term applies to premature infants, post mature infants, and full-term infants. Before birth, the term foetus is used. Breastfeeding is the recommended method of feeding by all major infant health organizations. Neonatology is a subspecialty of paediatrics that consists of the medical care of new-born infants, especially the ill or premature new-born infant. Pregnant women are advised to pay attention to the foods they eat during pregnancy, such as soft cheese and certain fish, in order to reduce the risk of exposure to substances or bacteria that may be harmful to the Child health.
Major causes of childhood mortality have occurred in many low middle-income class (LMICs), including 106 countries with accelerated declines in childhood mortality from 1990 to 2011; 80% of this decline was due to reductions in death from infectious causes. A large, and growing, proportion of global childhood mortality is therefore due to non-communicable disease. Indeed, 6.0% and 18.6% of deaths among children ages 5 to 14 years in lower- and upper-middle-income countries (MICs), respectively, are due to cancer.